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2013年考研英语(二)阅读真题(MP3+字幕)第1篇 Making It in America

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In an essay, entitled "Making It in America," the author Adam Davidson

亚当·戴维森《在美国制造》一文中
relates a joke from cotton country about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated:
提到南部种棉地区的一个笑话,内容涉及现代纺织厂自动化的程度:
The average mill has only two employees today, "a man and a dog.
如今的普通工厂只有两个雇员,“一个人外加一条狗。
The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines."
人是负责喂狗的,狗是让人不要靠近机器的。”
Davidson's article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared
最近有大量文章都在讨论这些,戴维森的文章只是其中一篇而已。
making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today
我们的失业率为何居高不下、中产阶级收入为何下降,
is largely because of the big drop in demand because of the Great Recession,
其实大部分是由于大衰退造成的需求大幅下降。
but it is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution,
这其中也有全球化和信息科技革命巨大进步的推动:
which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign workers.
机器或者外国工人取代劳力的速度空前。
In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job, could earn an average lifestyle.
过去,只要有个一般的手艺,做份普通的工作,工人生活就过得还凑合。
But, today, average is officially over. Being average just won't earn you what it used to.
但如今,拥有一般水平不行了。不出众就没法像过去一样活着了。
It can't when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor,
因为现在越来 越多的雇主有大把的机会接触到不错的外国廉价劳动力、
cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius.
便宜的机器人、廉价的软件、低廉的自动化设备和要价低的人才。
Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra
因此,人人都需要有另外的价值:
their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.
异于常人的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。
Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will.
是的,新技术一直就在吞噬我们的工作,将来还会继续吞噬。
But there's been an acceleration.
而且吞噬的速度在加快。
As Davidson notes, "In the 10 years ending in 2009, US factories shed workers so fast
如戴维森所言,“2009年之前的十年内,美国工厂裁撤工人速度之快,
that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years;
基本上等于过去70年新增的工人数量;
roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs--about 6 million in total--disappeared."
大概每三个工作岗位就有一个岗位消失了,总共约有600万之多。”
There will always be change —new jobs, new products, new services.
变化总是会存在的,新工作、新产品和新服务都会出现。
But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution,
但我们确信无疑的是,全球化和科学技术每前进一步,
the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.
最好的工作都会要求工人接收过更多的更优质的教育,这样他们才会超于常人。
In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment,
在一个平庸者已经无法生存的时代,我们需要做的促进就业的事情有很多,
but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I. Bill for the 21st century
但没有哪个比通过像《退伍军人权利法案》之类的法案来得重要。
that ensures that every American has access to post-high school education.
只有这样,才能保证21世纪的每个美国都能接受高中之后的教育。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
declining [di'klainiŋ]

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adj. 下降的,衰落的 动词decline的现在分词

 
acceleration [æk.selə'reiʃən]

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n. 加速,促进,加速度

 
contribution [.kɔntri'bju:ʃən]

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n. 贡献,捐款(赠)

 
textile ['tekstail]

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n. 纺织品

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stubbornly

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adv. 倔强地;顽固地

 
unemployment ['ʌnim'plɔimənt]

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n. 失业,失业人数

 
unique [ju:'ni:k]

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adj. 独一无二的,独特的,稀罕的

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genius ['dʒi:njəs]

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n. 天才,天赋

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revolution [.revə'lu:ʃən]

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n. 革命,旋转,转数

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entitled [in'taitld]

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adj. 有资格的,已被命名的 动词entitle的过去

 

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